TIME: 75 minutes for 41 questions
DIRECTIONS: Follow these directions for each of the three question types:
• Sentence-correction questions: Choose the answer choice that best phrases the underlined words according to the rules of standard English. The first answer choice duplicates the phrasing of the underlined portion; the other four choices provide alternative phrasings. Choose the one that rephrases the sentence in the clearest, most grammatically correct manner.
• Reading-comprehension questions: Choose the best answer to every question based on what the passage states directly or indirectly.
• Critical-reasoning questions: Pick the answer choice that best answers the question about the argument provided,

Questions 1—6 refer to the following passage, which is excerpted from Playing against Nature: Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World, by Seth Stein and Jerome Stein (Wiley 2014).

Natural hazards are the price we pay for living on an active planet. The tectonic plate subduction producing Japan's rugged Tohoku coast gives rise to earthquakes and tsunamis. Florida 's warm sunny weather results from the processes in the ocean and atmosphere that cause hurricanes. The volcanoes that produced Hawaii's spectacular islands sometimes threaten people. Rivers that provide the water for the farms that feed us sometimes flood.

Humans have to live with natural hazards. We describe this challenge in terms of hazards, the natural occurrence of earthquakes or other phenomena, and the risks, or dangers they pose to lives and property. In this formulation, the risk is the product of hazard and vulnerability. we want to assess the hazards — estimate how significant they are — and develop methods to mitigate or reduce the resulting losses.

Hazards are geological facts that are not under human control. All we can do is try to assess them as best we can. In contrast, risks are affected by human actions that increase or decrease vulnerability, such as where people live and how they build. We increase vulnerability by building in hazardous areas, and decrease it by making buildings more hazard resistant. Areas with high hazard can have low risk because few people live there. Areas of modest hazard can have high risk due to large population and poor construction. A disaster occurs when — owing to high vulnerability — a natural event has major consequences for society.

The harm from natural disasters is enormous. On average, about 100,000 people per year are killed by natural disasters, with some disasters — such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami — causing many more deaths. Although the actual numbers of deaths in many events, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, are poorly known, they are very large.

Economic impacts are even harder to quantify, and various measures are used to try to do so. Disasters cause losses, which are the total negative economic impact. These include direct losses due to destruction of physical assets such as buildings, farmland, forests, etc., and indirect losses that result from the direct losses. Because losses are hard to determine, what is reported is often the cost, which refers to payouts by insurers (called insured losses) or governments to reimburse some of the losses. Thus, the reported cost does not reflect the losses to people who do not receive such payments

Questions 20-23 refer to the following passage, which is excerpted from Handbook of Early Childhood Development Programs, Practices, and Policies by Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal (Editor) and Eric Dearing (Editor) (Wiley 2017).

Researchers, educators, and policymakers generally agree that school readiness is a multidi mensional concept that includes cognitive, executive functioning, language, socioemotional, behavioral, and health characteristics that contribute to children's ability to adapt and thrive in school settings. These performance domains are correlated but typically are assessed and studied as independent indicators of school readiness and predictors of later achievement. Importantly, the guiding definitions of school readiness typically include skills and behaviors that are related to learning processes as wellas learning outcomes, as opposed to the K—12 system, which often only emphasizes student outcomes based on children' s performance on academic achievement tests.

In the area of cognition, school readiness includes both acquired knowledge or skills in particular content area (such as knowing a certain number of letters) as well as learning/ processing skills or how fast children acquire knowledge. In particular, there has been a growing emphasis on executive functioning skills and how these skills interact with other domains to promote learning in preschool classrooms. Executive functioning typically is defined as the set of skills and behaviors required to attain a goal, including working memory, attention control, attention shifting, and response inhibition. For young children, this means being able to resist distractions (e.g., pay attention to a teacher rather than talk with peers), inhibit dominant responses in emotional contexts (e.g., raise hand instead of talking while the teacher is reading a book) , and prioritize and sequence information and hold onto it in memory (e.g., plan and carry out the series of steps required to line up for lunch).

In addition, school readiness includes children's language skills, including their receptive language (i.e., the ability to listen and understand language) and expressive language (i.e., the ability to communicate with others using verbal language). Children 's socioemotional skills are also an important component of school readiness and include behaviors such as cooperation with teachers and peers and developing social relationships, as well as behavior problems, including aggression or poor regulation. There are also a set of skills referred to as approaches to learning, which reflect children's curiosity, flexibility, attention, persistence, and engagement. The physical health domain includes motor development, such as development of tine and gross motor skills, and healthy behavior practices. Collectively, all of these skills are theorized to affect children 's learning opportunities and their acquisition of new skills and behaviors in the classroom setting.

Questions 31—35 refer to the following passage, which is excerpted from Beyond Cybersecurity: Protecting Your Digital Business, by James M. Kaplan, Tucker Bailey, Derek O'Halloran, Alan Marcus, and Chris Rezek (Wiley 2015).

All business investments require trade-offs between risk and reward. Does the interest rate on a new bond issue adequately compensate for the risk of default? Are the potential revenues from entering a new emerging market greater than the risk that the investments will be confiscated by a new regime? Does the value of oil extracted via deep-water, offshore drilling outweigh the chance of a catastrophic accident? Tough questions must be answered by weighing up the business impera tives against a calculation of the risk— and the greater the risk, the harder it is to make the case for investment.

Technology investments are no different. They, too, have always been a trade-off between risk and return. However, for enterprise technology, increased global connectivity is raising the stakes on both sides of the equation. The commercial rewards from tapping into this connectivity are enormous, but the more tightly we are connected, the more vulnerabilities exist that attackers can exploit and the more damage they can do once inside. Therefore, when a manufacturer invests in a new product life-cycle management system, it is making a bet that the system will not enable the theft of valuable intellectual property. When a retailer invests in mobile commerce, it is betting that cyber-fraud won't critically damage profitability. When a bank invests in customer analytics, it is betting that the sensitive data it analyzes won't be stolen by cyber-criminals. The odds on all those bets appear to be shifting away from the institutions and toward cyber-attackers. They could swing decisively their way in the near future given most companies' siloed and reactive approach to cybersecurity.

Our interviews with business leaders, chief information officers (CIOs), chief technology officers (CTOs), and chief information security officers (CISOs) indicate that concerns about cyber-attacks are already affecting large institutions' interestin and ability to create value from technology investment and innovation. Potential losses, both direct and indirect, reduce the expected economic benefits of technology investments, as do the high cost and lengthy time frame required to build the defense mechanisms that can protect the organization against a growing range of attackers. In short, the models companies use to protect themselves from cyber-attack are limiting their ability to extract additional value from technology.

Concern about cyber—attacks is already having a noticeable impact on business along three dimensions: lower frontline productivity, fewer resources for information technology (IT) initia tives that create value, and — critically — the slower implementation of technological innovations.